- Carolingian royal officials who represented the king's interests in specified regions. The missi dominici (singular: missus dominici), or messengers of the lord king, were responsible for announcing the king's will on the local level and for ensuring that justice was done throughout the realm. The missi dominici were specially chosen by the king, and the office was used as a means to establish royal control in a large and growing empire.Although missi dominici seem to have been used by the kings of the Merovingian dynasty as well as by the early Carolingian mayors of the palace, the office was only fully exploited by Charlemagne, who turned it into a regular and important part of his administration. At first even Charlemagne used the office on an occasional basis, but as his reign progressed the missi dominici became a more formal and regular tool of government. By 802, at the latest, the missi dominici had become a normal tool of Charlemagne's government and were sent out to all parts of the empire on an annual basis to perform their various services for the king. But there is evidence to suggest that they were used much earlier; they were probably used to disseminate the capitulary of Herstal in 779 and were also most likely used to administer oaths of fidelity to Charlemagne in 789 and 792-793. The missi dominici remained an important part of Carolingian government, at least through the reigns of Louis the Pious and Charles the Bald.There were two categories of missi dominici: the missi ad hoc, or "special" missi, and the "ordinary" missi. The powers of the two were not different, but the special missi were used for specific missions to examine particular circumstances or injustices. The more important office, however, was that of the "ordinary" missi dominici. Although early in Charlemagne's reign they were chosen from among many of the king's retainers, regardless of social rank, after 802, they were chosen only from among the secular and ecclesiastical nobility, to reduce the possibility of corruption. Indeed, the classic format of the missi dominici included a lay aristocrat, such as a count, and an ecclesiastical noble, such as an abbot or bishop. They were given responsibility for exercising royal authority in a specific geographic area within the kingdom known as a missaticum.The missi dominici held numerous responsibilities as the king's official representatives. Their primary duty was to enforce the royal will. They were charged with transmitting new capitularies throughout the kingdom, enforcing the new laws laid out in those capitularies, investigating the conduct of counts and other royal agents, and collecting revenues. They were to ensure that justice was done properly in the royal and local courts, and they could hear judicial appeals. They were also employed to administer oaths of fidelity to the king and to prepare the army for military campaigns. The counts throughout the realm were expected to provide food and lodging for the missi dominici, and legislation was enacted to ensure they were properly received when they reached their missaticum. Although an often effective tool of government, the missi dominici were not above corruption themselves, as the reforms of 802 suggest. And Theodulf of Orléans noted the difficulties faced by the missi dominici, who were frequently offered bribes. The missi dominici were, nonetheless, an important element of Carolingian administration.See alsoCapitularies; Carolingian Dynasty; Charlemagne; Charles the Bald; Louis the Pious; Merovingian DynastyBibliography♦ Fichtenau, Heinrich. The Carolingian Empire. Trans. Peter Munz. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1979.♦ Ganshof, François Louis. Frankish Institutions under Charlemagne. Trans. Bryce Lyon and Mary Lyon. Providence, RI: Brown University Press, 1968.♦ Halphen, Louis. Charlemagne and the Carolingian Empire. Trans. Giselle de Nie. Amsterdam: North-Holland, 1977.♦ McKitterick, Rosamond. The Frankish Kingdoms under the Carolingian, 751-987. London: Longman 1983.♦ ---. The Carolingians and the Written Word. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989.
Encyclopedia of Barbarian Europe. 2014.
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Missi Dominici — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Dominici. Les missi dominici (littéralement, « envoyés du seigneur », au singulier missus dominicus, plus rarement employé, Sendgraf en allemand) sont un organe et une charge institués en 789 et… … Wikipédia en Français
missi dominici — ● missi dominici nom masculin pluriel (latin missi dominici, envoyés du seigneur) Envoyés des souverains carolingiens, qui étaient chargés de la surveillance des autorités locales. (Ils allaient par deux, faisaient leurs tournées quatre fois par… … Encyclopédie Universelle
Missi dominici — fue una institución de carácter compensatorio entre el poder central y el territorial. Había sido empleado alguna vez por los merovingios, pero quien le dio uso real fue Carlomagno, siendo mencionados expresamente en el año 779. Los condes, al… … Wikipedia Español
Missi dominĭci — Missi dominĭci, so v.w. Sendgrafen … Pierer's Universal-Lexikon
missi\ dominici — [ misidɔminisi ] n. m. pl. • 1765; mots lat. « envoyés du maître » ♦ Hist. Inspecteurs royaux qui visitaient les provinces, sous les Carolingiens, et notamment sous Charlemagne … Encyclopédie Universelle
Missi dominici — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Dominici. Les missi dominici (littéralement, « envoyés du seigneur », au singulier missus dominicus, plus rarement employé, Sendgraf en allemand) sont un organe et une charge institués en 789 et… … Wikipédia en Français
Missi dominici — Der lateinische Begriff missus bezeichnet im Mittelalter allgemein einen Bevollmächtigten eines Großen im eigenen Bereich. Die missi dominici / Königsboten (auch „missi fiscales, missi regales, missi regis) stellen dabei die wichtigste Gruppe dar … Deutsch Wikipedia
missi dominici — emissaries of some Frankish kings and emperors who supervised provincial administration. See missus dominicus. * * * … Universalium
missi dominici — ► HISTORIA Nombre que recibían algunos funcionarios del Imperio carolingio que controlaban la administración … Enciclopedia Universal
Missi — dominici Pour les articles homonymes, voir Dominici. Les missi dominici (littéralement, « envoyés du seigneur », au singulier missus dominicus, plus rarement employé, Sendgraf en allemand) sont un organe et une charge institués en 789… … Wikipédia en Français